Conclusion

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Conclusion

46. For those who are tempted to apologize for the British Empire, as many will be inclined to do, we ask that you answer the challenge put forward in this book to explain the Slave Trade, Colonial Rule in the Empire, the Policy toward dark peoples, the slaughter of the Dutch Farmers their wives and families in the Boar War, the slaughter of forty eight thousand of the Dervish Forces after the siege of Khartoum. They need to explain the betrayal of the Jews, and the return to the land of Palestine.

Then they might like to give a reasonable answer to all the words of Nahum’s prophecy as they apply to whoever they claim the words relate to so we can understand the point of the protest and defense.

You were probable irritated by the way the history did not follow the chronological order of events. This is because we mentioned them as they related to what Nahum was saying at the time. It could have been better organized but we got the drift and that is all we need to accept we are dealing with something we cannot ignore.

What we are compelled to accept is God is alive and involved in what is happening in our world. You can say: God has no right to interfere with our world, especially not to help the Jews make their way in it. There is not a lot of goodwill toward the Jews. It is called Anti-semitism and is alive and well today as it was in World War two. People blame the Jews for the death of Messiah as if they would handle the matter differently. They would not handle it differently, because we all have our own agenda and Jesus upset theirs, but that is the subject of another book at another time.

You may not have noticed but the sub-headings in each chapter follow the verses Nahum wrote, and all you need to do to remind yourself of the issues is read these again and all the proof jumps out of the page. What it means is this is one little book of three chapters in the midst of sixty six books God wrote for your information and consumption. These other books are as interesting and informative as this one and deserve to be read and understood as well. In fact, this book of Nahum was intended for this generation, because prophecy cannot be understood until after the events. The force of the prophecy is in the detail, and this detail does not emerge until the event is history.

Another question worth asking is: if this little book has so much information for this generation how much important information are we missing out on from the larger books. The answer is: you are missing out on a great deal of helpful information, so much valuable information that you ought to be ashamed.

Another group of people who ought to be comforted by Nahum’s message is the Jewish Nation. If God expanded the British Empire to make the return possible, and shrunk the Turkish Empire to allow the British to do it, then reduced the British Empire to an Island home because they failed to do what he wanted, then the Jewish return is an important event and God cares about Israel. We say they ought to be grateful, but there is no sign of that. When they realize what God has done for them they will respond as they should, but that is some time away.

And then there is the generation that has all the advantages of knowing and could not care less because they do not care about anything much, we can only hope some of it gets through.

Prepare for the siege

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Prepare for the siege

45. Verse 14 Draw thee waters for the siege, fortify thy strong holds: go into clay, and tread the morter, make strong the brickkiln. You need the wall to avoid the bullets. We make a wall in one way or another. You had better get ready for the battle because this is the most devastating outcome the Empire has faced. It will be on home soil next. It will not be in the colonies where we can afford to lose a bit of stuff. It will be in the middle of town, we will be fighting in the streets.

But did they have to fight for the Colonies in some cases? When independence was proposed the British just abandoned the territory. They were greatly outnumbered by the locals. Even if they made themselves many it would not have made any difference to the result.

Fire will devour you

15 There shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee off, it shall eat thee up like the cankerworm: make thyself many as the cankerworm, make thyself many as the locusts. But how are they going to know that they are at risk? They need to read “Nahum” and realize how close they came.

Your merchants are as the stars

16 Thou hast multiplied thy merchants above the stars of heaven: the cankerworm spoileth, and flieth away. Again I say Nineveh was a conqueror not a trader. England is a trader. She does it for produce. She knows a good deal when she sees it. Britain is the greatest trader in modern times. She has the ships and controls the waves. She transports all the goods.

The thing is she trades when the trade is not as good as it was. The cankerworm spoils it and then flies away. It is not like the old days.

Your crowned are like locusts

17 Thy crowned are as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, but when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they are. In the old days, there were fewer princes, now there are many. There were fewer captains, and now there are many. And the princes and captains in those days would fight for the realm. Today they are not awarded the coveted knighthood for mighty deeds. Knights of the Realm are Rock Stars, Actors, Entertainers and they are like locusts. These are not Military honors so the numbers are like grasshoppers. The Empire was built on princes and captains who taught the arrangements in the Empire to the many who carried out their orders and put their lives on the line. There is no way it could ever be built again, because those people are not there anymore.

Your shepherds slumber

18 Thy shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them. The primary producers have gone to sleep. It is a nation of Merchants. The heavy lifting was done by others, all of them over the seas. There are thirty six million sheep in the United Kingdom producing three hundred thousand tons of meat and they do not use shepherds as such. Primary produce is small compared with other activities.

The nobles are those who occupied the colonies. They no longer hold high office. This is when Britain became the controlled, instead of the controller, it all fell apart. Insurgents in the colonies chased the rulers into the hills and there is no influence to call on. The young lions are giving orders to the old lion.

No healing of your bruise

19 There is no healing of thy bruise; thy wound is grievous: all that hear the bruit of thee shall clap the hands over thee: for upon whom hath not thy wickedness passed continually? They are not sorry. It was a system of class and discrimination. It was built on the idea they had a divine right to rule, and that will not work anymore.

 

The Falklands

8659835299_9963c935de_k-001   USMC Harriers line the deck of HMS Illustrious

44. Verse 13 Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women: the gates of thy land shall be set wide open unto thine enemies: the fire shall devour thy bars.     The Falklands War was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the disputed Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Their name and sovereignty over them have long been disputed.

It started on Friday the 2nd of April 1982, with the Argentine invasion and occupation of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia. Britain launched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Argentine Air Force, and retake the islands by amphibious assault. The conflict ended with the Argentine surrender on the 14th of June 1982, and the islands remained under British control. The war lasted seventy four days.

The political effects of the war were strong in both countries. A wave of patriotic sentiment swept through both: the Argentine loss prompted even larger protests against the ruling military government, which hastened its downfall: in the United Kingdom, the government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was bolstered.

A caption alongside a photo of a Harrier Jet claims: “clearly Britain cannot conduct independent war fighting operations as a sovereign nation, if its land and sea forces are dependent on Air support from the land based Royal Air force.”

Margaret Thatcher was known as “the iron lady” and she was renouned for doing what the male politions could not do and stare down the Union Leaders in Britain over holding the country to ransom on Coal Mining pay and conditions. It was the moral force of her argument that forced a backdown by the unions. But this was nothing compared with the glory of past victories. It is a different world. And British rulers are women.

Prepare for the seige

14 Draw thee waters for the siege, fortify thy strong holds: go into clay, and tread the morter, make strong the brickkiln. You need the wall to avoid the bullets. We make a wall in one way or another. You had better get ready for the battle because this is the most devastating outcome the Empire has faced. It will be on home soil next. It will not be in the colonies where we can afford to lose a bit of stuff. It will be in the middle of town, we will be fighting in the streets.

But did they have to fight for the Colonies in some cases? When independence was proposed the British just abandoned the territory. They were greatly outnumbered by the locals. Even if they made themselves many it would not have made any difference to the result.

Put and Lubim are your helpers

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9 Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers. Whoever they were, they were the strength of the Empire, because this is what they were to Thebes. They made up the numbers. The British were the princes and the captains. They were the helpers, and there were many of them.

So Thebes is just like Britain. As she was in her day, so is Britain today. Britain has not been destroyed altogether and neither has Thebes. She has a job to do. She will bear her shame and finish what was started.

She is to bring a present to God by returning Jews to the land in the later days. This she did in part. She will use her ships to complete the work begun.

Your honorable men are in chains

10 Yet was she carried away, she went into captivity: her young children also were dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets: and they cast lots for her honourable men, and all her great men were bound in chains. This all happened to Thebes. The question is: does Britain accept that it can happen to them? If they say: no we do not think so, we were only attending to the needs of the empire, and that cannot be a bad thing. But it is not a question of whether we think it is good or bad, if God gave it to us then he can take it away. They picked on the wrong one. God is not the one we double cross.

You are drunk

11 Thou also shalt be drunken: thou shalt be hid, thou also shalt seek strength because of the enemy. These are things Thebes did. The British do these things too, but it will not make any difference. Thebes has no power today. Britain is still here. And I notice their support for the survival of Israel has changed for the better. I am sure it is self-interest that has inspired the change of heart, it always is. What they do not realize yet is, it can get a lot worse than it is now.

Like ripe figs

12 All thy strong holds shall be like fig trees with the firstripe figs: if they be shaken, they shall even fall into the mouth of the eater. Then what do we make of the fig tree?

We can imagine a fortress with bulwarks against the enemy. The strong holds are the colonies. They are like fruit on a fig tree. All the interested parties had to do was shake the tree, and the fruit fell into their open mouths. This is history. This is how it happened.

The image presented to us is the fruit being so ripe it falls off the tree into the mouths of those who wait to eat them at the bottom of the tree. How easy is that?

The Colonies

Most of them are after the Second World War and in the reign of Elizabeth II. And they did not involve battles. The hand over was negotiated. They fell off the tree like ripe figs into the mouths of those who waited. There was no battle, no resistance.

A gazingstock

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42. Verse 6 And I will cast abominable filth upon thee, and make thee vile, and will set thee as a gazingstock. Let me ask in what way was Nineveh a gazingstock? I just thought since everyone tells us it is talking about Nineveh only, it might be just as well to see if these words fit.

They do not fit. Everyone was happy to see the end of the Assyrian, but they were immediately replaced by another equally ruthless Empire in Babylon. I do not think anyone had time to gaze at Assyria. But I can see it about Britain. It happened so fast. They call it the Commonwealth now and we share and trade, but Britain is yesterday’s man.

So let me ask if it fits what we see of the British Empire? It does, because of the shame of the way Britain gained control and kept it. The excess was exposed. They were brutal in their administration. I know people claim those nations were better-off for British rule, but the fact they could not do what they used to do to keep the natives at bay, makes them a gazingstock. Everyone looks at what the Empire was, and what it is today, and finds the transformation remarkable.

Many people have difficulty with the idea the British could be described as vile. The British would not see themselves this way and neither would those in the colonies, but we are looking at the broad sweep of history and God’s view of them. You consider their self-interest, the slave trade, the slaughter, the concentration camps, the repression, the plunder. It would not be hard to make a case. Vile is a good word.

7 And it shall come to pass, that all they that look upon thee shall flee from thee, and say, Nineveh is laid waste: who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for thee? No one cares. They are all carving out their niche in the marketplace. They do not have time to regret. We go there for holidays. It is an expensive place to live. It is still a busy commercial center, and there are plenty of ships.

Are you better than Thebes?

8 Art thou better than populous No, that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about it, whose rampart was the sea, and her wall was from the sea? Luxor is surrounded by the water of the Nile. The enemy could not get to Thebes because of the water. Why mention Thebes? Thebes was the center of the Nile trade. She was surrounded and protected by water, and she had allies like Egypt and Ethiopia, Put and Lubim to aid against marauders. And who should overrun her but Assyria. It is mentioned here because of the irony. Britain built the Empire by controlling Egypt, Ethiopia, Put and Lubim. She used them in the battle to build the Empire. When they each in turn gained their independence the Empire was lost.

Who then is Put and Lubim? Obviously they were allies of Thebes, but it is hard to place them specifically today. But then they are not supposed to be specifically identified. “Put” is a Hebrew word for the sons of Ham, who are acknowledged to be those of the dark races. “Lubim” means the “dry region” and in African terms would refer to desert peoples. It is thought to be Libya and perhaps Somaliland. They are just African countries, as in dark skinned peoples, who were paid to be soldiers of the Empire.

South African Apartheid

2061041095_b091b6c655_o   focussed

Apartheid

41. We are talking about the way the British have been made to wear the shame of their deeds. Apartheid is a word that means separateness in Afrikaans (which is cognate to the English “apart” and “hood”) It was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party Government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994.

Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times, but apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948. New legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups (black, white, colored, and Indian), and residential areas were segregated with forced removals. Blacks were stripped of their citizenship, legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self-governing homelands or “Bantustans.” Four of these became nominally independent states. The government, segregated education, medical care, and other public services and provided black people with services inferior to those of whites.

Reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Fredrik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid, resulting in multiracial democratic elections in 1994. These were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela. The vestiges of apartheid still shape South African politics and society.

The British colonial rulers introduced a system of pass laws in the Cape Colony and Natal during the nineteenth century. This stemmed from regulating blacks’ movement from the tribal regions to those occupied by whites and coloreds ruled by the British. Laws were passed not only to restrict moving blacks into these areas, but also to restrict their movement from one district to another without a signed pass. Blacks were not allowed onto the streets of towns in the Cape Colony and Natal after dark, and had to carry their passes always.

Jan Smuts’ United Party Government began to move away from the rigid enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II. Amid fears that integration would eventually lead the nation to racial assimilation, the legislature established the Sauer Commission to examine the effects of the United Party’s policies. The commission decided integration would bring about a “loss of personality” for all racial groups.

Following the general election of 1948, the National Party set in place its program of Apartheid, with the formalization and expansion of existing policies and practices into a system of institutionalized racism and white domination. Apartheid legislation classified inhabitants and visitors into racial groups (black, white, colored, and Indian or Asian).

However, Werner Eiselen, the man who led the design of apartheid, argued the government could not continue segregation and white supremacy. He also proposed apartheid as a “political partition” policy instead of segregation in public facilities. The idea behind apartheid was more one of political separation, later known as “grand apartheid,” than segregation, later known as “petty apartheid.” Hendrik Verwoerd is considered the most influential politician in the growth of apartheid and described it as “a policy of good neighborliness.”

Until 1956 women were excluded from these pass requirements, as attempts to introduce pass laws for women were met with fierce resistance.

If we ask, what brought the Empire down it was the spectacle of the master becoming the slave. She was invincible, so how did the Japanese take Singapore and receive one hundred and thirty thousand Imperial troops as prisoners of war? The Japanese regarded surrender as dishonor. And to see the British building the Burma Railway and imprisoned in the Changi prison camp, showed how naked they were.

Churchill died in 1965 at which time all the important parts of the Empire had gone. He saved London and Britain, but he could not save the Empire.

American War of Independence

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40. The deterioration of relations between Britain and her American colonies that eventually led to the War of Independence stemmed from a British attempt to make the colonies contribute more to the cost of their own defense. It was also partly the result of the need of some successful merchants in the colonies to break free of controls imposed by the British.

Events like the Boston ‘Massacre’ of 1770, when British troops fired on a mob that had attacked a British sentry outside Boston’s State House, and the Boston ‘tea-party’ of 1773, when British-taxed tea was thrown into the harbor, marked the downward steps. In mid-1775, patriot representatives of the thirteen colonies of America, meeting in Philadelphia as the Continental Congress, appointed George Washington as commander in chief of its military forces.

In 1777 Howe took Philadelphia for the British, and had the better of fighting in the central theater of war. But an ill-judged British attempt to invade from Canada down the Hudson Valley towards New York and cutting off the rebellious New England went badly, and Lieutenant General John Burgoyne was forced to surrender with his entire army at Saratoga in October.

Defeat at Saratoga was not necessarily a military cataclysm for the British, but it encouraged the French, keen to get revenge for the humiliations of the Seven Years War, to go beyond the covert support they had offered the patriots, and join the war. Spain and Holland were to follow, and in 1780 a wider League of Armed Neutrality was formed, to resist British attempts to stop and search merchant shipping.

In the spring of 1781 the picture changed. Admiral de Grasse, commanding the French fleet in the West Indies, made a bold try to secure control of the sea off the Chesapeake Bay. Although the war was not formally ended until the Treaty of Versailles in 1783, it was clear after Yorktown the British, with their worldwide preoccupations, no longer had any realistic chance of winning. Once more it was established that an inferior force, as long as it avoids outright defeat and remains on the battlefield, can outlast the occupier whose other interests draw him away.

The war of independence is important because it was the first of the Colonies to remove itself from The Empire. The Americans taught the French how to rebel against the establishment, and this resulted in the French Revolution. The French Revolution was a turning point in the history of the modern world, because democracy was born and the spirit of liberty, equality and fraternity opened the era of the people.

You may be tempted to claim this spirit led to the end of Empire and not the vengeance of God, but this was the first Colony to fall. It was also the Colony that exported freedom to the world. Independence was gained in a series of bloody battles and hung on a thread at the end. Other international issues convinced Britain to withdraw. Britain did not see it as the end of the Empire for they conquered Africa and reached the heights around 1914. But the USA was the one given oversight of the Middle East after the Second World War, and they opposed the British in their efforts to prevent the Jew returning to the land.

The British were given the empire a longtime ago and we are suggesting now, the seeds of the end of the empire were sown when the first colony fell. That colony grew in power, and was the most influential power in Middle Eastern Affairs at the time of the return. All the presidents have contributed to the security and survival of Israel in the land. We know who they are, and we know what they have done. Some deserve special mention.

Woodrow Wilson at the end of the first war, Franklan D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, J. F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon and Richard with Henry Kissinger his Secretary of State, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Regan, George Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush.

This work is done to the shame of the British who were to do it, but because they were too interested in themselves and their corrupt ways it was taken off them. The British are bit players in the global scheme of things. I might add that scripture tells us Jerusalem would be a burdensome stone to all who try to lift it, and these presidents all testify to that. They have not managed to solve the problem of how to deal with this city.

Wellfavored harlot

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39. Verse 4 Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the wellfavoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts.    In what way could we describe Britain as a well-favored harlot? The British were renowned for courting those she wanted to please, and she pleased many. They wanted her favors. And when the Empire was gone, they had to find others with whom to negotiate.

In what way then is she the mistress of witchcrafts? Pagan Rome ruled in her past, and superstition was rife in the north. The witch doctor was in Britain well before he was in Africa. As evidence of the genre, I bring to your notice Harry Potter, a fictional character who with his spells can today command billions of pounds.

Do we think the British will accept that sort of evidence? Probably not, but in her role as purveyor to the nations the word harlot describes her quite well.

Did she sell nations? In 1939 there were several European Empires, Britain controlled thirteen Million square miles of territory and governed four hundred and forty four million people. France had four Million square miles and one hundred million people. Belgium had one Million square miles and two hundred million people. The Netherlands had two million square miles and seventy million people. Germany had six hundred thousand square miles and eighty million people. Britain was also the World Banker. In 1914 she had investments in foreign lands of three point eight million pounds, half of the foreign owned investments. This was double the French and three times the German. The answer is: she sold nations.

It does say she sold them through whoredoms. That seems to be talking about military deals, trade-offs without cash. They just betrayed agreements. We mentioned the way she allowed Lawrence to mislead Feisal.

She sold families. How she managed to justify the Slave Trade involves witchcraft. Zanzibar was the depot for dispatch of families from the African Coast.

5 Behold, I am against thee, saith the LORD of hosts; and I will discover thy skirts upon thy face, and I will shew the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame. In what way was the nakedness of the British Empire seen? In the way the world identified the class struggle and racial discrimination that allowed Empire in its day. Even the agreement with the Boar after the war led to Apartheid in South Africa. It takes big magic to convince people we are “doing it for your own good,” and “this will hurt me more than it hurts you” sort of approach.

Horsepower

461214634_bbbf976603_b   Donatello [and Jag]

38. Everyone has seen a prancing horse and he is showing his threatening and challenging side or his “horse power.” We know modern car manufacturers have knowledge of this as a symbol, because they use it on their fast cars to suggest speed and power. And on the subject of jumping chariots it is only necessary to show the modern tank three feet off the ground to convey what Nahum saw.

Prancing horses speaks of the incredible horsepower of these vehicles. And we may find that an unlikely reference, but a prancing horse is showing off his horsepower, and every vehicle involved in our modern world expresses its credentials in horsepower.

At no other time in history has the power of these vehicles been expressed as “horse power” or “prancing horses,” and at no other time in history have the chariots been able to jump.

And what battles do we think he viewed. It was Israel battling to hold on to the land God gave them. They made the tanks go fast. They supped-up the engines. They made them jump.

At least accept that Tanks are the most used modern weapon in our world. You saw Russia march, or rattle into Georgia just a short time ago.

The words “rattling, prancing and jumping” are similar to those in chapter two verse ten, that increase in intensity and are rhyming. Once again the prophet is drawing attention to English poetry. It is also drawing attention to military might. The weapons are superior to all her enemies.

It is just as well to mention the tanks the Israeli’s made is called the “Merkava.” It is a Hebrew word translated “Chariot” in Nahum.

In the Second World War the tank was a ponderous vehicle rattling along. In the desert there was nothing to stop them going fast, so fast they could jump. If we want to reject the idea, you need to tell me what you think a jumping chariot means in Assyrian terms.

3 The horseman lifteth up both the bright sword and the glittering spear: and there is a multitude of slain, and a great number of carcases; and there is none end of their corpses; they stumble upon their corpses: We are still talking about the Empire and its excesses. In the British Army if your kit is not spic-and-span you peeled potatoes for weeks. They make a fetish of polishing until their kit gleamed. It has something to do with the pride of the army and general morale.

The many corpses imply city fighting or fighting in confined places.

On the issue of British excess we ought to dwell on examples of God’s complaint. At the end of Queen Victoria’s reign there was the battle against the Maadi, a Moslem uprising in the Sudan. General Charles George Gordon representing her Majesty Queen Victoria kept a presence in Khartoum in defiance of the Maadi’s troops. He was marooned in Khartoum, and the promised British help did not happen. Gordon and his men were overrun. Queen Victoria apologized to Gordon’s relatives for the inaction, and fourteen years later the Empire had its revenge on the Maadi. Omdurman on the banks of the Nile, two civilizations clashed on the second of September 1898. Fifty two thousand Dervishers against twenty thousand British troops, all in their Red Coats and the Maxim guns evenly dispersed along the line. The twenty three year old Winston Churchill wangled his way into Kitchener’s expedition as a war correspondent.

There were fewer than four hundred casualties on the Anglo Egyptian side and the Dervish army lost ninety five percent of their troops. Privately Churchill deplored the way the Maadi’s remains were desecrated and the inhuman slaughter of the wounded. He was profoundly shocked at the way British firepower reduced Dervish warriors to “dirty bits of newspaper strewn over the plain.”

It is all about weapons. Their swords were in pristine condition and their spears glittered. And the slain were many. But this was what the Empire was, a military machine.

Noise of the whip

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37. Verse 2 The noise of a whip, and the noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the pransing horses, and of the jumping chariots.   Notice it speaks of “the noise of the whip” which is exactly the sound of rifle fire. It is the same noise because the end of the whip when flicked is breaking the sound barrier in the same way as the bullet leaving the muzzle of the gun is breaking the sound barrier. How would Nahum, who witnessed modern warfare, describe what he saw and heard, unless he described it with what he knows in his day?

I would like to suggest the rattling of the wheels speaks of track vehicles that make a very real rattling noise. It is the first thing we notice about them. You may pour scorn on my exposition for putting it squarely in our day. But I suggest that at no other time in the history of our world have chariot wheels rattled.

In the record of the First World War there were a few examples of the use of tanks in the desert. They were novel but not very effective.

Rommel introduced tanks into the desert in a serious way and was successful in the Second World War. The German tanks were more advanced than the British, but the British put much effort into developing the Sherman, the Churchill and Matilda tanks. A feature of tank warfare in the beginning was the flamethrower. For humanitarian reasons it is a weapon not used today.

The War of Independence in Israel was, in effect, an infantry war. Operations of both Israel and the enemy were waged by infantry formations. The few tanks used played no decisive role. Israel then had fifteen tanks, and the Arabs had forty five. Mobile and armored forces in the War of Independence were mainly equipped with half-tracks, armored personnel carriers, and armored vehicles with light guns. Israeli forces had two hundred and eighty half-tracks and twenty armored vehicles with guns. Arab forces had six hundred and twenty armored vehicles and armored personnel carriers, of which one hundred and eighty carried guns.

The Sinai campaign of 1956 was characterized by mobile, armored warfare. Israel operated two hundred tanks in Sinai, versus one hundred and fifty tanks used by the Egyptians.

Since the Sinai Campaign, the land war between Israel and the surrounding Arab nations has become a war of highly mobile and armored formations. A total of two thousand five hundred tanks were operated during the Six-Day War by Israel and the enemies. Six thousand two hundred tanks engaged in combat during the Yom-Kippur war. Since the Sinai Campaign, thousands of tanks have been destroyed in battle.

In the Yom Kippur war the tank is central to the art of war, and is considered the primary decisive factor on the modern land battlefield.

If you continue to scroll down you will see a photograph of what is known as a jumping chariot.